This is a Digital Library working with the 'collection, maintenance and public viewing' of the historical documents regarding the Liberation War of Bangladesh and Genocide of Innocent Bengali People in 1971.
More than three million Bengalis were killed and half a million Bengali women were raped by Pakistan Military Forces, Biharis, Jamat-I-Islami, Islami Chatra Shangha (Now Islam-I-Chatra Shibir), Muslim League, Nezam-I-Islami Party, Razakars, Al-Shams, Al-Badr, Peace Committee, Muzahid Bahini during the nine months long Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971.

The Exeter South Asia Centre of the College of Humanities of the University of Exeter listed ‘Muktijuddho e-Archive’ as a source for Research materials.
The University of Exeter is a public research university located in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom. 
This archive is absolutely NON-COMMERCIAL. All contents available here are for learning, study & research purpose only. Contents available here CANNOT be used for any kind of commercial purpose.

Bangladesh Genocide 1971: The Evidence - Sabbir Hossain

Bangladesh Genocide, 1971: The Evidence

Prepared by- Sabbir Hossain

Muktijuddho e-Archive Trust

This is an initiative to gather evidential documents to understand the Bangladesh Genocide, 1971.

Photographer: Marilyn Silverstone
More than three million Bengalis were killed and half a million Bengali women were raped by Pakistan Military Forces, Biharis, Jamat-I-Islami, Islami Chatra Shangha (Now Islam-I-Chatra Shibir), Muslim League, Nezam-I-Islami Party, Razakars, Al-Shams, Al-Badr, Peace Committee, Muzahid Bahini during the nine months long Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971.

International Academics, Experts & witnesses' Views, Opinions & Testimonies of Bangladesh Genocide:


The Psychology of Genocide - Perpetrators, Bystanders and Rescuers

by Steven K Baum
Cambridge University Press:
1. Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan (East Pakistan now Bangladesh) was one of the main masterminds of Bangladesh Genocide. (Page 6).
2. 03 million Bangladeshis were killed during secession war with Pakistan (1971), perpetrators were Pakistan Military & their collaborators. (Page 12).

Beyond the Killing Fields

by Sydney H Schanberg
Potomac Books:
The Pakistani Army has painted big yellow ‘H’s’ on the Hindu shops still standing in this town to identify the property of the minority eighth of the population that it has made its special targets. Members of the Moslem majority—who, though not exempt from the army’s terror, feel safer than the Hindus—have painted on their homes and shops such signs as ‘All Moslem House'. (Page 129)

Dictionary of Genocide - Volume 1: A–L & Volume 2: M–Z

by Samuel Totten & Paul R Bartrop with contributions by Steven Leonard Jacobs
Greenwood Press, London:


1. Pakistan perpetrated genocide against the Bangladeshis in 1971. (Page-31)
2. It was envisaged that the army could also rid East Pakistan of its large Hindu minority and terrorize the East Pakistani people into accepting what was in reality a colonial status. In a short period of time, a massive explosion of violence resulted in the murder of 3 million people, a quarter of a million women and girls raped, 10 million refugees who fled to India, and 30 million displaced from their homes. Ultimately, a calculated policy of genocide initiated by the government of West Pakistan was unleashed on the people of East Pakistan for what seemed to be the singular purpose of coercing the people into accepting a continuance of Pakistani rule over the region. In the end, the strategy did not work. (Page 34-35)
3. Bangladesh Genocide, U.S. Response:
Some 3 million Bangladeshis (a term the East Pakistanis preferred to be called) lost their lives, an estimated 250,000 women and girls were raped, and approximately 10 million fled to India. It was a calculated policy of genocide initiated by the government of West Pakistan for what seemed to be the singular purpose of coercing the people into accepting a continuance of Pakistani rule over the region. Observing this, the U.S. administration of President Richard M. Nixon (1913–1994) seemed little concerned to intervene. (Page 35)
4. Mass Rape against Bengali women:
Systematic and organized rape was used as a special weapon of war by the Pakistan army. Women and girls were raped in front of their family members both to terrorize and “inflict racial slander.” Girls and women were also kidnapped and gang-raped in special camps run by the army. Ultimately, many of the rape victims were killed, whereas many others committed suicide. (Page-272)


Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity
Edited by Dinah L. Shelton
Publisher- Thomson Gale:

In the evening of March 25, 1971, the Pakistan army attacked East Pakistan (Bangladesh).
Its first move was to attack the faculty and students at Dhaka University and to take Mujib into custody.By one estimate, up to 35,000 Bangladeshis were killed at the university and elsewhere on the first few days.The number of Bangladeshis killed, disabled, raped, or displaced by the violence of 1971 is not fully known.Estimates by Bangladeshi sources put the number killed at up to three million, and it is estimated that as many as ten million may have fled to India.
Initially, the Pakistani army targeted educators, students, political leaders, and others who were generally considered to be prominent sympathizers of the Awami League.
Survivor accounts, such as that by Jahanara Imam, suggest that much of the killing soon devolved into little more than indiscriminate slaughter.
Bangladeshis wanted an apology from the Pakistanis for the excesses committed during the war.
They received one finally from the Pakistani president, Pervez Musharraf, when he visited Bangladesh in July 2002.
[Researcher: Craig Baxter]

Encyclopedia of Genocide, Volume I: A-H,

Editor: Israel W. Charny
Institute on the Holocaust and Genocide,

Jerusalem. Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Inc.:


Bangladesh’s emergence as a nation in 1971 came at the cost of three million people dead, a quarter of a million women and girls raped, ten million people fled to India, and thirty million people forced to flee their homes. 
Liberation war of Bangladesh was outcome of the genocidal campaign of the West Pakistani military elite against the Bengali population of East Pakistan (Bangladesh). Ultimately Genocide as government policy of West Pakistan failed to prevent the birth of Bangladesh. Racial, Religious & Political issues had important role in Genocide against Bangladeshis, that was committed by West Pakistan Military & their collaborators.
On the evening of March 25, 1971, the military and political elite of West Pakistan with malice aforethought loosed the Army of Pakistan (manned and commanded by West Pakistanis) on the Bengali population of East Pakistan to emasculate the Awami League as a political opponent, to rid the province of East Pakistan of its Hindu population of 10 million persons, and to terrorize the civilian population into complete and permanent submission. This plan of intimidation, brutalization, and extermination of any Bengali who would not accept West Pakistani superiority.
 
Particularly at risk were known Awami League politicians and their supporters, most of whom, however, went into hiding in the countryside or escaped to India. The armed security and police forces manned by Bengalis were an early target, but many of these also escaped with their weapons to return as guerrillas. Bengali students, professors, and intellectuals were summarily executed. The West Pakistan Army was particularly intent on killing every single Hindu they could find. Slum and squatter areas of the major cities and towns were also obliterated with all their occupants. All able-bodied young Bengali men were considered freedom fighters. Early on, they were routinely rounded up, tortured, and killed. Very quickly, however, they fled the cities and towns for the guerrilla camps in the countryside and in India. The Army of West Pakistan turned its fury on the women and girls left behind. Girls and women were publicly raped in front of their family members. They were routinely abducted to special camps near army barracks to be gang raped, brutalized, and killed, or to live with the eternal shame of their violation. Many committed suicide. 
As the Bengali guerrilla campaign became more effective against the West Pakistan Army, the Army undertook daily retaliatory missions to destroy as many villages as possible. In December, when the Army of West Pakistan was finally forced to retreat back into its cantonments, they systematically set about killing all the influential intellectuals and professionals in each city and town where they were besieged. 
The military authorities were able to recruit collaborators from Muslims who had emigrated to East Pakistan from other parts of India after Partition, and from among the East Pakistani political parties opposed to the Awami League. 
After war, Bangladesh govt under Sheikh Mujib began to try the war-criminals & collaborators. But through Simla Accord, West Pakistani war-criminals escaped justice. Collaborators were tried under Collaborators Act. But after 1975 Tragedy (Killing of Sheikh Mujib), collaborators too escaped justice & were openly participating in Bangladeshi public life. To this day, an elemental enmity between freedom fighters and collaborators continues to cause political and social turmoil. (Page- 36, 115-116)
[Research- John P. Thorp. Social Sciences Department. Ferris State University.]

Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide
by Leslie Alan Horvitz and Christopher Catherwood.

Publisher: Facts On File, Inc.:

The Pakistani army was implicated in rape that occurred during the nine-month war of Bangladeshi independence in 1971. According to International Planned Parenthood, an estimated 250,000–400,000 women in Bangladesh were raped in the war, resulting in an estimated 25,000 pregnancies.(Page-360)

Genocide: Approaches, Case Studies, and Responses
Edited by Graham C. Kinloch & Raj P. Mohan.
Algora Publishing, New York:

Bangladesh Genocide of 1971 was originated from very high levels of Anti-Bengali racism of Pakistan and in consequence, genocide was committed as reactions of Pakistan to crush the attempted secession of East Pakistan by Bengalis. (Page-25)
Mass Hate: The Global Rise of Genocide & Terror
by Neil J. Kressel.
Westview Press (Perseus Books Group):

1. Pakistani soldiers committed mass-rape in Bangladesh in 1971. (The Hater’s Mind, Page-3)
2. The killing of Bengali people in 1971 in Bangladesh was Pakistan's state-sponsored killing. (Chapter-8, Page-218)
3. In 1998, terrorism expert Steven Emerson told the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Government Information that Jamat-e-Islam is an organisation of terrorist circle. Jamat-e-Islam was one of the perpetrators of Bengali Genocide of 1971. (Preface, Page- xx)

.....to be continued......

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