This is a Digital Library working with the 'collection, maintenance and public viewing' of the historical documents regarding the Bangladesh Liberation War, Genocide of Innocent Bengali People in 1971 and contemporary political events of Bangladesh.

More than three million Bengalis were killed and half a million Bengali women were raped by Pakistan Military Forces, Biharis, Jamat-I-Islami, Islami Chatra Shangha (Now Islam-I-Chatra Shibir), Muslim League, Nezam-I-Islami Party, Razakars, Al-Shams, Al-Badr, Peace Committee, Muzahid Bahini during the nine months long Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971.

The Exeter South Asia Centre of the College of Humanities of the University of Exeter listed ‘Muktijuddho e-Archive’ as a source for Research materials.

The University of Exeter is a public research university located in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.
This archive is absolutely NON-COMMERCIAL. All contents available here are for learning, study & research purpose only. Contents available here CANNOT be used for any kind of commercial purpose.

The Testimony of Sixty - Oxfam

The Testimony of Sixty



On the 43rd anniversary of the publication we publish why and how it was produced in 1971 and how Senator Edward Kennedy had it adopted by the United States Congress.

October 21, marked the 43rd anniversary of the publication of the “Testimony of Sixty,” a collection of eye-witness accounts of the tragic situation in Bengal (East and West) at that time, in 1971.

In addition, today marks the 43rd anniversary of the publication in the United States Congressional Record of the “Testimony of Sixty.”

As I am the only person, currently living and working in Bangladesh, who was personally involved, in 1971, with the collection of many of these eye-witness accounts, I thought that you will be interested to learn how and why we decided, in 1971, to publish this document.

In 1971, I had the responsibility of coordinating the relief efforts of OXFAM-UK which was assisting approximately six lac Bangladeshi in many refugee camps in the border areas of Tripura, Meghalaya, Assam, Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri, Siliguri, West Dinajpur, Barasat, and Bongaon.

As we were unsure how long the tragic situation would last, at any one time we were always planning six months ahead, and in September 1971 we were assessing the future cost of assisting the refugees through the winter which, in many areas, would be severely cold. We needed regular and large sums of money each month.

This campaign meant that the fundraising effort and publicity had to be second to none. To raise funds for a crisis which appeared to be never-ending needed a sustained fundraising strategy using advertisements which would both inform but also shock people into giving.

As the winter of 1971 approached, and with it the need for blankets and warm clothing, OXFAM ran campaigns to “Take a Blanket Off Your Bed,” “Buy a new sweater for Christmas and Throw Your Old Ones to OXFAM,” “You know what a lot of people are praying for this Christmas? A swift and merciful death.”

The British Post Office, at the time, charged nothing for sending blankets and warm clothing by parcel postage if addressed to OXFAM and the Royal Air Force air-freighted the blankets to Kolkata.

For those of us who have forgotten or are too young to remember, there were an estimated 10 million Bangladeshis existing in about 900 refugee camps. The logistics of feeding and caring for such a large number of people even now, after so many years, are difficult to comprehend. How was it done? It was done through the heroism of so many, and these men and women never sought fame or credit but insisted that they were just doing what had to be done. Most of them were refugees themselves.

To those who, in 2014, still question if genocide, by the Pakistan Army and their collaborators, took place, I can only say that on numerous occasions, over a period of seven months, when I visited the refugees, I saw traumatised families who had witnessed the murder of their loved ones. On my visits to the refugee camps, I became used to seeing dead bodies, mostly children, lines of people queuing up to use latrines and some, with acute diarrhea, not making it in time.

In the camps where there was no supplementary support to the aid being given by the Indian government, the situation was much worse. I saw many refugees dying, mostly the very young and the very old. They did not die in peace or with dignity. They died of hunger, in the mud. They died of cholera and they died of cold.

It was difficult to keep the crisis on the front pages of the world’s newspapers. The news of the genocide of March 25, 1971 put it on the front pages, and with outbreak of cholera in May and June, the humanitarian crisis was front page news once more. Again, when the camps got flooded that year, it was front page news. By September 1971, the British newspapers had headlines of “Carry on dying,” “Can the refugees ever go home?” and “Pakistani famine is worse than Biafra.”

However, OXFAM, at its Oxford based Head Office, decided that it must find a way to shock the world’s leaders to an even greater extent, to make them open their eyes and wake up. In a surprisingly short space of time eye-witness accounts of the tragedy were collected and published as “The Testimony of Sixty on the Crisis in Bengal.”

This carried statements and articles written by famous persons such as Mother Teresa and Senator Edward Kennedy and well-known journalists such as Anthony Mascarenhas, John Pilger, Nicolas Tomalin, Clare Hollingworth and Martin Woollacott.

I personally collected many of the statements from people in Kolkata and I remember one day sending a telex full of statements which took 75 minutes to send over the wires! Copies of “The Testimony of Sixty” were handed over to many heads of governments and its publication coincided with the opening of that year’s General Assembly of the United Nations where it was distributed to all ambassadors to the UN.

The day before the official publication date, October 21, 1971, the British Post Office assisted with telephone directories from all over the UK to pile up 49 million names on the pavement outside an OXFAM shop which was situated at 49, Parliament Street, London. Nine million represented the number of Bangladeshi refugees at that time in India and the other 40 million names represented the number of people displaced inside (then) East Pakistan who were facing extreme hunger.

It is interesting to record that although the USA was firmly supporting Pakistan in 1971, Senator Edward Kennedy, who had visited India and the refugee camps in August 1971, brought “The Testimony of Sixty” to the attention of the US. Senate and it was published in full on October 28, 1971 in the “Congressional Record,” only one week after it was published by OXFAM in UK. Introducing the “Testimony of Sixty” to the United States’ Senate, the Congressional Record states the following:

“Mr Kennedy: Mr President, the crisis in East Bengal is a story of human misery on a scale unequaled in modern times. It is a story of systematic terror and military repression, of indiscriminate killing and the killing and dislocation of millions of civilians. It is a story of death and disease, of too little food and water, of fetid refugee camps without hope and a countryside stalked by famine.

And throughout it all the world has barely murmured a word.

Perhaps this is because we are conditioned in the world we have created to accept such suffering and injustice. To many the plight of the Bengali people is just another link in the chain of war-ravaged populations stretching around the world in recent years.

But perhaps, Mr. President, the public is silent because it does not know.

To bring the facts more forcibly to the public’s attention, the noted British charity, OXFAM, has recently published an impressive brochure entitled ‘The Testimony of 60 on the Crisis in Bengal.’ No one who reads this document can remain unmoved or uninformed as the plight of the Bengali people.

To share this eloquent statement with Members of the Senate, I ask unanimous consent that it be printed at this point in the RECORD.

There being no objection, the testimony was ordered to be printed in the RECORD.”

It is important to place on record that, although the US government supported Pakistan at that time, there was a huge outpouring of generosity and concern by the American people. In addition, over half a million dollars of medical supplies were donated by American companies for use in the refugee camps, and later, after Liberation, in Bangladesh.

In 2007, the Liberation War Museum brought out an English facsimile edition so that more people could learn more about the history of how this nation was formed and the pain and suffering that was involved, and on December 16, 2009, The Daily Prothom Alo published a Bangla facsimile edition which has reached many more readers.

This, then, is the story of how this historical document was prepared and why it was prepared. As someone who witnessed the very painful birth of Bangladesh, I am astonished that there are many who deny that genocide took place in Bangladesh in 1971. I strongly recommend that they read “The Testimony of Sixty” wherein the eye-witness accounts will bring tears to their eyes.